The recent moves of three LPG tankers demonstrate a playbook of sanctions-busting tactics used to supply Syria with fuel.
Lebanon's electric sector reform remains on hold as it explores using Iraqi high sulfur fuel oil in its aging power plants.
Some of the networks under U.S. sanctions have developed intricate tactics to keep oil flowing to Syria.
As Iran anticipates a lifting of sanctions, it will return to a very different oil market where Iraq has filled the vacuum.
While other countries have turned away, Syria has become a key destination for Iranian oil under U.S. sanctions.
The coronavirus's chilling effect on global oil demand is exposing the frailties in Iraq's oil-based economy.