for Urban design
While transit vehicles have become substantially more fuel efficient in recent years, declining ridership makes it very hard to take full advantage of these gains in efficiency.
Between 1950 and 1980, central city densities plunged, VMT soared, and transit ridership plummeted. Many commentators have speculated whether renewed “urbanization” will lead to large reductions in vehicle ownership and VMT.
Clear recognition of the link between urban design and VMT is crucial to understanding the relevance of urban planning movements pursuing “compact development” to reduce fuel consumption and oil dependence